Some gardeners, having planted a nut on the site, immediately forget about it, believing that the nut will grow without their participation, and after ten years they wonder why there is no crop. Of course, the nut is one of the most unpretentious garden centenarians, but it also requires a certain amount of attention. Otherwise, over time, instead of a large tall tree with a sloping crown, a curved-sided squalor with small fruits will grow.
Walnut care is simple and includes:
- regular watering
- periodic top dressing
- treatment from pests and diseases.
The frequency of watering depends on the frequency of precipitation and the age of the tree. Young seedlings of nuts, from spring to autumn, need a very plentiful watering 2 times a month. However, if the summer turned out to be rainy, additional moisture is not necessary so that the roots do not rot. In the absence of autumn rains, the young hazel needs a water-charging irrigation for a good wintering.
Large nuts, whose height exceeds 4 meters, practically do not need watering (except for long drought), since their powerful roots are able to take moisture from the depths of the earth.
As for loosening the near-stem circle after watering, you often do not need to do this so as not to damage the roots. Two loosening per season and autumn digging are enough. Walnut generally does not like excessive interference, and in order to protect the soil from the formation of a dry crust, it is better to use mulch.
Features nut fertilizer
Nut dressing begins in the fourth year of life. This applies to those seedlings when planting which the substances necessary for tree development were introduced into the planting pit. Their nut is usually enough for the first three years.
Beginning in the fourth year after planting, nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate) should be applied in the spring, and mineral preparations containing potassium and phosphorus (potassium salt, superphosphate) in the autumn.
During the first five years of a nut’s life, a tree crown is formed:
- in the annual nut, select and leave the strongest shoot, which will become the main one, and pinch the tops of the remaining branches,
- in the future, lateral shoots must be cut off until 6 to 10 skeletal branches are formed on the tree (they are pinched).
When the contours of the crown are formed, then the nut will handle itself. It remains only to carry out sanitary pruning, cutting out damaged and diseased shoots, as well as those branches that go inside the crown.
Forming pruning is best done in the spring, and sanitary pruning in the fall.
Walnut, like other garden trees, loves pests and diseases, therefore it is better to take measures and protect it from damage than to actively treat it later.
For prevention, it is necessary to spray the nut twice a year with a solution of copper sulfate: in early spring, when the buds have not yet opened, and in late autumn, after the leaves have fallen.
More than a thousand years ago, from Central Asia, this tree arrived in Europe. Greek merchants brought it to Russia, which was the reason why the plant got such a name. Now it is being bred not only in the hottest countries of the world, but also in Russia, Moldova, Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and the Caucasus.
In ancient times, walnut had a few more names: "Food of the warriors" "acorn of the gods", "tree of life." From time immemorial, people have respected and loved this powerful plant, because it gave them tasty and very healthy fruits. Other parts of the tree were also actively used, for example, foliage was used for medicinal purposes.
Walnut is not only one of the largest, but also one of the most long-lived species among all trees of the Middle Strip. Based on statistical data, we can confidently say that some specimens lived up to 400-600 years. However, today the probability of meeting such a long-liver is extremely small, because walnut wood is highly valued and is actively used for the production of expensive luxury furniture and decor elements.
If you believe experienced gardeners, the number of fruits that can be obtained from one tree, primarily depends on the age of the plant. So, the yield of a young (up to 50 years) walnut does not go in comparison with the fact that he managed to cross the centenary.
Description and characteristic
This walnut tree is considered tall. If the plant likes the place that he was given on the site, and the gardener follows all the prescribed rules for caring for him, then the walnut can stretch up to 18-23 meters in height.
The sprawling crown of the tree can reach 15 meters in diameter, and the branches diverge at right angles. It should be concluded: before planting such a plant in your garden, you should responsibly approach the choice of place so that the grown tree does not spoil the appearance of the site, does not hurt the branches of the building and does not block sunlight from other plantings.
Walnut tree possesses a very powerful and branched root system. During the first three years, the main core root develops, as it grows, it tends to penetrate into the very depths of the soil and gain a foothold in it. At the 4–6 year of life of the tree, lateral roots form, they diverge by 5–6 meters in different directions from the main one.
Such roots are located not far from the soil surface, and only 30-50 centimeters in depth. This perfect root system helps an adult plant not to suffer from small rainfall and insufficient watering, since a large capture area allows you to independently find water.
If you cut down an adult walnut tree, but do not touch the stump left from it, then after a while young shoots will start to grow from the stump, from which it will be possible to harvest the first crop in only 1-2 years. Consider this feature if you want to permanently get rid of the tree, because in this case it is not enough just to cut it, you will have to uproot the stump. It is not worth worrying about the roots remaining in the ground - they are not able to give a new shoot.
Flowering of this nut occurs in springtime (April-May) and lasts about 2-3 weeks. Flowers bloom at the very beginning of the growing season, without waiting for all the leaves to form. At the tips of the annual shoots, female flowers are formed, on the remaining branches - male flowers, which come together in 5-10 pieces and form earrings.
In the climatic conditions of the middle and southern stripes, repeated blooming can be seen, usually in the middle of June. Walnut tree is a self-pollinated plant, the fruits ripen by mid-autumn (September-October). It is worth noting that nuts from different trees often differ in size and taste.
Varieties for the middle strip
Today, Russian gardeners for growing walnuts in the climatic conditions of the middle strip choose one of 20-25 hybrid varieties. These varieties were developed specifically for our regions; they are distinguished by high productivity and resistance to low temperatures.
The following varietal species are most suitable for Russian personal plots:
- "Harvest" - is distinguished by a high oval-shaped crown and sprawling branches. It is very hardy, therefore it has been successfully grown in the middle lane for a long time. Another positive quality of the variety is considered to be an early harvest - it can be harvested already in early autumn, before the cold snap and the beginning of rains. Resistant to most insect pests and diseases that affect nut bushes and trees.
- "Dessert". The variety is suitable for cultivation in hot regions, as it is resistant to droughts, but does not tolerate cooling (due to low temperatures, the kidneys and bark crack). Quite miniature (up to 3 meters in height), but has a dense crown, suitable for small summer cottages. From a tree of this variety you can get a good harvest - 20−27 kilograms of nuts per season.
- Abundant. It grows to 5 meters, the first crop gives 4−5 years after planting. From one tree you can get up to 30 kilograms of nuts per year. They grow in clusters of 8-10 fruits. It is recommended to abandon this variety if you live in the northern regions, as "Abundant" is unstable to frost and cold winters. It has a high immunity to diseases such as fusarium, brown spotting. Gardeners note the excellent taste of the fruits of this variety.
- “In memory of Minov” is the most popular variety in our country. He received recognition from gardeners due to the early ripening of fruits. The first crop gives the tree 5-6 years after planting. The nuts are flattened, large, the shell is thin, has a silver tint.
- "Graceful" is a massive plant up to 5 meters high. It has a dense crown, resistance to diseases, frost, pests. Fruits in mid-autumn, the first crop can be expected in the fifth year after planting. The average yield is 20 kilograms of nuts per season.
- "Black Nut". It got its name because of large fruits in a hard and thick peel of black color. The tree grows very tall, the first crop gives only 10 years of life. Loves sunlight and moist soils. In winter, young plants need additional shelter; mature plants tolerate low temperatures perfectly.
- "Ideal" - a quick variety, gives the first crop 3-4 years after planting. When a tree reaches 12 years of age, its productivity rises to 120 kilograms of nuts per season. It is recommended to plant away from buildings, as it has a highly branched root system, which develops a large area of the earth around it. Such a plant requires good lighting, it prefers loamy soils of medium humidity.
Planting in the garden
When planning the creation of a walnut garden on your site, you must adhere to the following rules:
- If you want to plant several trees on one site, then keep in mind that they have a spreading crown and a very branched root system. Therefore, the distance between the planting pits for seedlings should be at least 5-6 meters.
- An adult nut has a thick and lush crown, which can cover other plantings from the sun. Also, such a large tree needs a lot of moisture and nutrients for healthy growth and development, the plant draws all these elements from the soil around it. Therefore, choosing a place for a seedling, remember that in a radius of 10 meters from a tree, other crops will not be able to grow and even more bear fruit.
- Do not plant a walnut tree near buildings. Its roots can provoke the destruction of the foundation.
- A tree loves sunlight, in a dark place it will lag behind in development, and then die.
- This plant will feel good in loose drained soil. Do not place it in areas with a high level of groundwater, as well as prone to flooding during rains and floods.
- Do not plant other fruit trees near the nut, as it will release substances that have a detrimental effect on such plants during photosynthesis.
This thermophilic plant is best grown in the southern regions. In the middle part of Russia, it is also able to take root, and then regularly bear fruit, but only if the air temperature in winter does not drop below 25 degrees. Severe frosts in most cases lead to the death of the tree.
Today you can buy seedlings of hybrid forms of walnut. Some of them are able to withstand temperatures up to 30 degrees below zero, but they will not be able to boast an abundant harvest, and they do not bear fruit every year.
If winter cold will lead to freezing of branches and shoots, then you can not wait for nuts this season. Adult trees tolerate drought and heat calmly, and young plants (up to five years) must be watered 2-3 times a month. In particularly dry times, watering should be increased.
Planting trees in the ground
The time of planting seedlings depends on the region:
- The southern strip is autumn. Then the tree will have time to take root before the onset of winter and will not spend energy on growing the crown. Additional care at this time of the year he will not need. If you decide to plant a seedling in the spring, then he will not have time to get used to the new place and with the onset of summer will die from the heat.
- The middle strip is the middle of spring. In such regions, the heat comes late, so the tree will have time to grow stronger and take root.
When a suitable place is chosen, and the landing time has come, you can start the process itself:
- Dig a landing hole measuring 50x50 cm and a depth of 45–55 centimeters.
- Fill the bottom with drainage material, 50% of the pit should be filled with it. Crushed stone, clay shards, expanded clay, and broken brick are perfect for this purpose. Such a technique will help slightly shift the beginning of the growing season. The stones will warm later than the earth and the tree will begin to bloom, having missed the last frost.
- Cover the remaining space with fertile soil mixed with wood ash and humus (can be replaced with compost).
- Drive a peg into the center of the landing pit. It will serve as a support for the tree until side roots begin to develop.
- Place the seedling in the hole up to the root neck. It should be flush with the soil.
You can also try to grow a new tree from a nut. It is believed that the plant obtained in this way will develop more successfully, since it will have time to adapt to new conditions even at the stage of the bone. For this:
- Dig a hole 7-10 centimeters deep.
- Lay the nut in it with the seam down.
- Fill with fertile soil and water.
- In addition to watering, seedlings do not need anything else. In the middle lane there are no pests that could catch their eyes on such a plant.
It is worth noting that if you want to plant a bone in the spring, then 2-3 months before, place it in wet sand. This will help the nut prepare for planting in the ground and increase the chances of germination.
To grow a healthy and strong walnut tree on your site, you do not need to spend a lot of time and effort on caring for it. However, with some subtleties of this process it is worth familiarizing yourself:
- Young trees need to be watered in the spring and summer twice a month. One plant will have to spend about 30 liters of water for one irrigation. Adult trees may need water only during prolonged droughts.
- Every autumn, potash and phosphorus fertilizing should be applied to the soil under the tree. In the spring - nitrogen fertilizers.
- This plant does not require pruning. But if there was a need to remove dry or frozen branches, do it in early June. After the procedure, treat each slice with a natural drying oil or garden var.
Walnut is a deciduous tree with a huge lifespan (several hundred years). Its height is 25–35 m. A large, wide crown is covered with complex leaves. The trunk is thick, with gray bark, covered with cracks. The plant is monoecious, dioecious, on which are male and female flowers. Wind pollinated. The fruit is covered with a thick, fleshy skin, false drupes. Under it is a useful kernel (80% of the weight of the nut), which is eaten.
It is interesting! As a rule, there is little vegetation near the tree. This is due to the fact that the roots secrete a special substance, due to which the growth of other plants is inhibited.
Popular frost resistant varieties
4 forms of walnut are distinguished: English or Persian, White, The black, Japanese. All of them are representatives of this. Walnut
As for the varieties, the culture of the walnut is southern, imported from Central Asia. And for a long time it was believed that its habitat is the warm regions of our country. Today, the market already has winter-hardy, productive varieties that are practically not affected by pests and diseases that can be grown in central Russia and the Moscow region.
- Dessert. It has an early ripening period and nuts with a sweet taste. The height of the tree is medium. Crohn is wide. The culture is drought tolerant. Winter hardiness is average: in the cold, the kidneys can freeze. Fruiting begins in season 4.
- Elegant. A short tree (4–5 m) with an oval crown. It is characterized by medium resistance to frost. Nuts ripen for 5 years. Collect them at the beginning of autumn.
- Aurora. Early, tall walnut. Fruits appear for 4 years, with a new season, productivity increases. Resistant to frost, not susceptible to disease.
- Ideal. A quick-growing variety. Well known to Russian gardeners. He is loved for high productivity and winter hardiness (can withstand up to - 35 ° C). Flowers form inflorescences and grow real grapes from nuts (up to 15 pieces).
It is important that the walnut has stepped outside its habitat. Low growth, good productivity, resistance to frost makes the culture accessible to central Russia.
The best way to reproduce is to get a crop from seeds. In this case, you can be sure which fruits you get in the end. Pick up a tree and collect from it several specimens of fruits. A seedling grown from such fruits will be well acclimatized to local conditions.
Attention!To grow a crop, it is worth planting more than one tree. The distance between the seedlings is 5 m. Note that over time, the crown will grow. On the slopes, a denser landing is acceptable - after 3.5 m.
Высаживать грецкий орех следует на солнечных, освещенных местах. По отношению к почвам, растение неприхотливо. Его «устраивают» разные типы почв и разнообразный рельеф местности. Но не нужно высаживать на заболоченных, песчаных и плохо аэрируемых территориях. Undesirable proximity to groundwater.
Landing technology following:
- We plant it in the spring, because an autumn planting can lead to the death of poorly grown seedlings from frost.
- Landing time is April (more specifically, the time is determined based on the region).
- A landing pit (50 × 50 cm) is prepared in advance, and a rich earth mixture is poured into it. Composition of the mixture: compost + ash + superphosphate. You can add humus.
- We straighten the roots, gradually sprinkling them with an earthen mixture. Watering. Around the seedling, we compact the soil.
- The root neck is closed by 5 cm.
The first fruits should appear in 4 years.
Walnut - planting and care
The plant is not demanding to care for. While it is small, you can grow vegetables between the trees.
Twice a month it is necessary to water as soon as the plant has grown. During a drought, when the soil dries, watering is also important. On a tree - 30 l. water per m².
We fertilize the crop 2 times a year: nitrogen - in the spring, potash and phosphorus - in the autumn.
Walnuts love a warm climate with a gradual transition to winter rest. Modern varieties can withstand a more continental climate and lower temperatures. But with spring frosts, young shoots and fruit buds can be damaged.
It is better to plant a walnut on a flat surface. Slopes are suitable, but the slope is not more than 10⁰. Slopes prefers southern and southwest.
Wind is necessary for pollination, but landings must be protected from strong winds.
Cropping and shaping the crown
It is important to lay the first branches of the skeletal tier. When pruning, leave 4 branches in different directions at an angle of 45 °. Young, standard shoots are removed. In the future, the tree is formed independently. Only sanitary pruning will be needed.
Attention!Nitrogen fertilizers must be applied with great care, as they can cause the development of bacterial diseases. At the beginning of the growth of a seedling, they should not be applied at all.
Why does the tree not bear fruit?
There are times when a walnut does not bear fruit, and there are the reasons:
- It is characteristic of young trees in the case of severe thickening of branches. It is necessary to remove the extra branches and thin out the crown.
- Good growth, but no flowering. In this case, they say that "the tree is fat." It is necessary to stop watering and feeding. If this does not help, then you need to trim the roots.
- Walnut blossoms, but does not form ovaries. Take a branch with ripened pollen and shake it over a tree where ovary does not form. That is, pollinate the nut artificially.
Before planting, the seeds are soaked in water, and then in the growth preparation "Zircon" for 3 days. Planted in April, when the soil warms up to 10⁰C in pre-prepared fertile soil. Depth of landing - 10 cm.
When planting, we don’t throw the nut, but set it sideways on the edge. Under the "open sky" growth is slow, much faster seedlings grow in film greenhouses. It is interesting that in their qualities they can surpass the mother plant.
As a stock, 2-year-old seedlings are used. Vaccination is carried out in March. In the northern regions, seedlings are grown in containers; in December they are left in a warm room. And vaccinated in February. Landing in open ground is made in May. With this method of propagation, the qualities of the “mother” plant are fully preserved.
It is important! Seeds must go through a period of stratification (preparation for sowing). This will take from 2 to 3 months (depending on the thickness of the shell), all this time the nuts will spend in wet sand in a cool place. A month before planting, nuts are transferred to heat, where they are kept in water and growth stimulants.
Pests and diseases: control measures
Compared to other trees, walnuts are less likely to be affected by pests and diseases. Nevertheless, some "friends of the garden" visit him:
- American white butterfly. Over the summer it gives three generations, and the third is the most harmful. Caterpillars of the butterfly, settling on the leaves, gradually move throughout the tree. Microbiological preparations or insecticides can be used to combat them.
- Apple or nut moth brings 2 generations. Caterpillars creep into the nut, eating away its contents. Infected nuts fall off. The method of struggle is pheromone traps that attract males. Reproduction is reduced, caterpillars become smaller. The viral preparations that cause the disease of the caterpillars and their death are treated. A mechanical method is also used: manual collection of caterpillars and diseased fruits.
- Aphid settles on young shoots and buds, forms colonies on the inner leaf surface. Chemicals are used for destruction.
- Sapwood - a bug that settles under the bark, so it is difficult to detect. Gnawing a bark on a tree, he leaves behind curved channels. Beetles settle on weak plants, causing an abundant flow of juice. Over the summer, 2 generations are formed. Control measures: spraying with insecticides. Prevention - sanitary cutting of damaged branches.
A tree can also become ill for physiological reasons: poor soil, lack of light, excess moisture, spring frosts, poor care.
Most often, walnuts are hit brown leaf spot, bacterial burn, bacteriosis, root cancer.
How to cover a walnut for the winter?
We obtained winter-hardy varieties, but winters are not very snowy and cold, and the tree needs shelter.
Even before frost, you need to wrap the root neck, trunk and skeletal branches with covering material. You can insulate with agrofibre, burlap, roofing, linoleum. The base can be covered with spruce branches and coniferous branches. This will protect the tree from severe frosts and winds. In spring, the tree will be healthy and ready to bear fruit.
It is important! When the snow falls, they need to throw a walnut to the skeletal branches, covering the entire trunk. Throw on a spruce top. So the tree will better survive the winter. In addition, the root system will not be affected.
Useful properties are obvious because the fruit contains:
- Vitamin E "Solves problems" of the cardiovascular system, lowers blood pressure,
- Antioxidants rejuvenate, reduce the risk of cancer,
- Potassium important in metabolic processes,
- Cellulose plays a role in intestinal motility, weight loss, prevention of obesity.
- Cobalt, Iron, Zinc increase hemoglobin levels, preventing anemia.
In addition, walnuts increase potency in men, have a tonic effect, have a positive effect on the brain due to its high protein content. Calorie content of the fetus - 653 kcal / 100 g.
Attention!The product is high-calorie, consume it sparingly. To maintain health and well-being, it is enough to eat 7 nut kernels per day.
Green (unripe) nuts have a soft core and peel. The collection of such fruits is carried out in May. They are pierced with a needle and, if juice flows out of the hole, collection can begin. The fact is that unripe fruits are very useful, they are rich in many substances and are widely used in folk medicine. In cooking, they make stewed fruit, marinades, jam.
Video about walnut planting and care
Now, with the advent of frost-resistant varieties of walnut, every gardener can grow this very healthy and tasty nut on his site. Use the information from our article and you will succeed!